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واژگان اختصاری
CMOS Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor
D3VFS Deadline-Driven Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling
DMS Deadline monotonic scheduling
DPM Daynamic Power Management
DSP Digital Signal Processing
DVFS Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling
DVS Dynamic Voltag Scaling
ED3VFS Enhanced Deadline-Driven Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling
EDF Earliest Deadline First
FCFS First Come First Serve
GPGPU General Purpose Graphics Processing Units
H.264 MPEG-4 Part 10, Advanced Video Coding
HPF High Priority First
HRT Hard Real-Time
IPC Inter-Process Communication
IRQ Interrupt Request Routing
LLF Least Laxity First
LU-McEP Load Unbalancing strategy for Multi-core Embedded processor
M-EDF Mixed-Earliest Deadline First
MPSoC Multi-Processor System on Chip
PDAMS Power and Deadline-Aware Multicore Scheduling
RMS Rate monotonic scheduling
SMP Symmetric Multi-Processing
SQ Shortest Queue
SRT Soft Real-Time
TI-OMAP Texas Instruments Inc – Open Multimedia Applications Platform
TLDHLB Two-Level Deadline-Aware Hybrid Load Balancer
VOIP Voice Over IP
WCET Worst Case Execution Time
Task Scheduling in Multi-core Embedded Real-time System to Improve Energy Consumption and Efficiency
Hossein Mahmoudi
[email protected]
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran
Degree: M.Sc. Language: Farsi
Supervisor: Dr. Mohammad Ali Montazeri, Montazeri @cc.iut.ac.ir
Abstract
Today, as a result of electronic business development and controlling facility requirements, embedded system importance and applications increased, as it became one of the most important research areas in computer science in recent years. In most of the times, embedded systems operations should be done before hitting a specific deadline, so almost all of embedded systems are real time. Military and industrial equipment, cellphone and other commercial applications like ATM and intelligent systems are samples of these systems. In addition to real time feature, low energy consumption is another main feature of embedded system, which is a main issue for digital system designers. Task scheduling and executing on present cores is the key problem in multi-core systems. In contrast to single core, that scheduling only defined as a matter of time, in multi-core systems the scheduling problem is a two dimensional issue, because the execution space comes into consideration in addition of time. It means that we should decide when and where a task should execute to achieve processing power, performance and execution time efficiency. Here we focus on four aspects of these types of systems: energy consumption, system efficiency, system performance, and system response time. Load distribution pattern on available resources (multi-core processors) affects all of the above aspects. Inefficient load distribution causes high energy consumption and decrease in performance and efficiency of the whole system. Most of proposed methods, dispatch tasks among processors regardless of the task type, and they only focus on dynamic voltage/frequency scaling mechanisms. The algorithm has been composed of three levels. At the first level a new method has been proposed to separate between periodic and aperiodic tasks with respect to the number of available cores. Second level divided to two sections. In the first section a new algorithm used to dispatch periodic tasks among respective cores. In the last section another new algorithm proposed for aperiodic tasks. At the third level a new algorithm has been developed to regulate voltage/frequency level according to deadline. Simulation results reveal that our proposed algorithm causes efficiency in energy consumption, in addition to increasing system performance and efficiency, and decrease in aperiodic tasks response time. Our algorithm is able to provide more quality in comparison to the other studied methods, due to satisfying more deadlines for periodic tasks and decreasing response time for aperiodic tasks in a reasonable order of execution time.
Keywords: scheduling, real-time task, multi-core processors, embedded systems
1 Embedded Systems
2 Smartphone
3 Real-time
4 Response time
5 Multi-core
6 Task
7 Scheduling
8 Load distribution
9 Utilization
10 Performance
11 Deadline
12 Periodic
13 Aperiodic
14 Digital signal processor
15 Actuator
16 Dependability
17 Fault prevention
18 Fault tolerance
19 Fault removal
20 Fault forecasting
21 Reliability
22 Availability
23 Integrity
24 Safety
25 Confidentiality
26 Maintainability
27 Ultra HD
28 Antilock Brake System (ABS)
29 Time distributed system
30Worst case execution time
31 Hard Real-time Systems
32 Soft Real-time Systems
33 Firm Real-time Systems
34 Multimedia
35 Virtual reality
36 Timeliness
37 Non-Real-time
38 Voice-Over-IP
39 Job
40 Encapsulate
41 Entity
42 Preemptive
43 Non-preemptive
44 External sensor
45 Non-existing
46 Created
47 Ready
48 Running
49 Blocked
50 Terminated
51 Priority
52 Releas time
53 Ready Queue
54 Synchronous
55 Asynchronous
56 Sporadic tasks
57 Relative Deadline
58 Absolute Deadlines
59 Implicit Deadline
60 Constrained Deadline
61 Arbitrary Deadline
62 Switch
63 Resources
64 Semaphore
65 Sensor
66 Actuator
67 Shared resource
68 Race condition
69 Feasible
70 Contex switch
71 Scheduler
72 Schedulability
73 Hard Real-Time
74 Soft Real-Time
75 Bounded
76 Feasibility
77 Class-feasibility
78 Optimality
79 Inter-task parallelism
80 Bus
81 Desktop computers
82 Multi-Processor System on Chip
83 Integration
84 Texas Instruments Inc – Open Multimedia Applications Platform
85 Computing clustes
86 General Purpose Graphics Processing Units
87 Online
88 Offline
89 Overhead
90 Preprocessing stage
91 Static priorities
92 Thread
93 Rate Monotonic Scheduling
94 Thread-level dynamic priorities
95 Earliest Deadline First
96 Unrestricted dynamic priorities
97 Least Laxity First
98 Worst Case Execution Time
99 Schedulability analysis test
100 Density
101 Slice swapping technique
102 Synchronization
103 Swapping
104 Symmetric Multi-Processing
105 Asymmetric Multi-Processing
106 Cache Coherency
107 Interrupt Request Routing
108 Theoretical
109 Non-migration
110 Partitioning
111 Full migration
112 Global
113 Restricted migration
114 Hybrid
115 Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling
116 Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor
117 Batch mode
118 Online mode
119 Task slack time
120 Prediction fault
121 Load Unbalancing strategy for Multi-core Embedded processor
122 Load unbalancing
123 Shortest Queue
124 Utilization threshold
125 Dynamic Voltag Scaling
126 Daynamic Power Management
127 Threshold voltage
128 Leakage power
129 Idle
130 MPEG-4 Part 10, Advanced Video Coding
131 Miss penalty
132 Intercore
133 Intracore
134 First Come First Serve
135 Deadline monotonic scheduling
136 Superset
137 Low power
138 Power and Deadline-Aware Multicore Scheduling
139 Power-aware multicore scheduling
140 Load dispatch
141 Master
142 Slave
143 Inter-Process Communication
144 Time slice
145 Mixed-Earliest Deadline First
146 Enhanced Deadline-Driven Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling
147 Two-Level Deadline-Aware Hybrid Load Balancer
148 Deadline-Driven Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling
149 Micro C/OS ?
150 Fixed-priority scheduling
151 Sleep
152 Time slot
153 Hyper period
154 High Priority First
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